For a General Surgeon in Karachi hernia repairs are one of the most often performed surgeries. While small hernias, with relatively mild symptoms are not surgically repaired right away, for large hernia that cause discomfort, surgery is the way forward. Read on to know more about hernias:
What are hernias?
Hernias refer to protrusion of the viscera, organ or fat through weakness in the surrounding muscle wall or connective tissue. Hernias most often form due to excessive pressure, or weakness of the surrounding area. This is why they don’t go away with time, and tend to get bigger. In hernia repairs, the protruded region of the organ is pushed back in its anatomical place and contained with stitches or a mesh to help prevent recurrence.
What are the types of hernias?
There are many types of hernias:
- Inguinal hernias: these are the most commonly occurring hernias. These are further subdivided into direct and indirect inguinal hernias. This happens when there is protrusion of small bowel through the opening or the wall of the inguinal canal. According to research data, 3 percent of women and 27 percent of men experience inguinal hernias.
- Ventral hernias these hernias occur through the muscles of the abdomen and are further divided into:
- Epigastric hernias: if there is herniation of gut above the umbilicus, it is called epigastric hernia.
- Umbilical hernias: this type of hernia is most common in premature babies, whereby there is herniation of gut near the umbilicus. In children, no treatment is necessary, while surgical repair is needed if they occur in adults.
- Incisional hernias: weakening of the incision site can cause underlying tissue to protrude through it. Incisional hernias are common in people with abdominal surgeries.
- Femoral hernias: these hernias occur in the groin or femoral region and are much less common than inguinal hernias. Without repair, they pose greater risk of complications.
- Hiatal hernias: these hernias involve bulging of the stomach into the chest through openings in the diaphragm.
What are the types of hernia repair surgery?
Most types of hernias require surgical repair. The primary options for hernia repair are:
- Laparoscopic hernia surgery: in this non-invasive surgery, small cuts are made in the abdomen to insert the surgical tools and camera (scope); thereafter, the herniated tissue is put back into place and a mesh is put onto it to strengthen the weak region of the abdominal wall.
- Open hernia surgery: this type of procedure involves a larger incision to directly view the herniated organ. After the herniated tissue is stitched in place, the weak area of the abdominal wall may or may not be strengthened with a mesh—like that in laparoscopic surgery—to prevent recurrence and formation of incisional hernia.
What are the symptoms of hernia emergency?
Emergency hernia repair is needed if the following symptoms occur;
- Incarceration: sudden trapping of the herniated organ or tissue in the wall of surrounding tissue can lead to incarceration. Without treatment, incarcerated part of the tissue can have obstructed blood supply.
- Bowel obstruction: if there is incarceration of the herniated gut, there may be intestinal obstruction that needs to be treated promptly.
- Strangulation: another complication of incarcerated tissue, as mentioned before, is impeded blood supply that may cause death of the incarcerated tissue. This is called strangulation and poses the risk of permanent damage to the herniated tissue. Strangulation warrants immediate surgery. Strangulation may present as darkening of the tissue, fever, and severe pain.
- Fever: if there is infection of the herniated tissue, or its strangulation, the patient complains of high-grade fever. Fever in hernia patients means imminent surgical repair needs to be performed.
- Sudden pain: this is another symptom of strangulated hernia If sudden pain occurs in a hernia patient, immediate workup is needed.
- Sudden enlargement of the bulge: if the hernia bulge suddenly enlarged, there is possible danger of strangulation and incarceration and the patient should be check over by General Surgeon in Rawalpindi.